Blocked fallopian tubes or an abnormal uterine cavity may cause infertility. Hysterosalpingography, or HSG, is an X-ray test to outline the internal shape of the uterus and show whether the fallopian tubes are blocked. In HSG, a thin tube is threaded through the vagina and cervix.
Doctors primarily use this exam to examine why you might be having difficulty becoming pregnant. The doctor looks at the openness of the fallopian tubes, the shape and structure of the uterus, and any scarring within the uterine or nearby peritoneal cavity.
The exam also evaluates the openness of the fallopian tubes and checks the effects of tubal surgery. These effects include:
- Blockage of the fallopian tubes due to infection or scarring
- Tubal ligation
- Closure of the fallopian tubes in a sterilization procedure and a sterilization reversal
- Re-opening of the fallopian tubes following a sterilization or disease-related blockage
The exam can investigate repeated miscarriages resulting from congenital or acquired uterine problems such as:
- Uterine fibroids
- Endometrial(uterine) polyps
- Congenital problems (uterine anomalies)